Copyright history in the world
If we go back in retrospect, copyright is not a new idea. In Ancient Greece and Rome, scholars had to insist on their right to make them known as the authors of their works, certainly in an age when plagiarism was not a crime. However, these scholars did not have an automatic, legal right to the income from their works (economic law). In the Middle Ages, a time when the majority of the population was illiterate, copied manuscripts were only available to a few privileged people. Copyright was not an important or necessarily protected issue. Gutenberg and Caxton changed everything with the introduction of printing presses and the subsequent viability of commercial publications.
However, even in the eighteenth century, the transfer of copyright for economic gain continued mainly through the direct sale of a manuscript. The peculiarity of this period was that the revenue generated by a particular work was not given to the respective authors or creators of the work, but the publishers and owners of the printing press. Copyright began to gain prominence in the nineteenth century, kings’ contracts emerged as the standard, providing payment for repeated performances.
Then, in the twentieth century, rights expanded and the authors became aware of their moral and property rights, which made it possible to exploit multiple works of music, thereby generating revenue from a variety of sources. The first copyright law in the world was the Statute of the Annals, which was enacted in England in 1710. This statute first introduced the concept of the author of a work or copyright that was the owner of the copyright and which set out the fixed conditions for the protection of these rights. The purpose of this statute was to limit the former powers of publishers.
Following this act, copyrighted works were required to be deposited in specific copyright libraries. So, copyright found support in 1710, as a set of property rights and non-property rights with relevant laws and case law aimed at establishing copyright protection. Side Statute-based legislation has gradually emerged in other countries, such as the “Copyright Act” of 1790 in the United States, but copyright legislation remained internationally unstable until the nineteenth century.
In 1886, the Berne Convention was introduced, which deals with the protection of works and the rights of their authors. It is based on three core principles and contains a set of provisions setting out the minimum security to be given for the protection and rights of the perpetrators, as well as other specific requirements made available to developing countries wishing to utilize them. The Berne Convention remains in force to this day and continues to provide the basis for international copyright law, which is administered by the WIPO.
However, unifying standards, as we can mention here again in the Berne Convention, mean that copyright works are protected by law, regardless of whether the authors of the work depart from their country of origin. If a work by a French author is copied illegally from the UK, for example, the UK courts will protect French copyright in the same way as a UK citizen. The idea of? The Bern Convention came from the famous French author Victor Hugo.
The Council of the European Communities (EC) issued a Directive on 29 October 1993 to harmonize the terms of copyright protection plus 70 years for literary and artistic works and 50 years from the date of publication for related rights. There are currently 35 countries in the world that have a term of plus 70 years, including the US, UK, Germany, France, Italy and Switzerland. Two countries with long term protection which are Mexico (plus 100 years) and Guatemala and (plus 75 years). The rules provided for in the Berne Convention are embodied in the 1995 TRIPS Agreement of the World Trade Organization, giving the Berne Convention a common application effect.
States have specific laws and bylaws on IP protection, namely copyright. There are some reasons which are regulated in the law of the respective country, but which are the same in concept. One of the main reasons is that the economic, as well as the moral rights of the creators in their works or creations, are provided by law, as well as the public’s right of access to these works. European copyright laws before the European Union decided to harmonize them were very similar to one another. The situation was still far from uniform copyright protection, both in terms of the main provisions protecting these rights and the duration of the security.
The European Union further undertook its initiatives for the harmonization of the member states’ legislation by signing the Berne Convention for the Protection of Artistic and Literary Works of 1886, which I mentioned above. All member states of the European Union have signed this convention, which reflects one of the prerequisites for EU integration and accession countries.
An important initiative of the European Community countries regarding the harmonization of the copyright legislation is the decision which sets out the application of the copyright protection standards for the software that was legitimized. By the Computer Programs Directive of 1991. Also adding that the total duration of copyright is 70 years after the death of the author, which made sense in 1993, precisely in the Directive on the length of copyright. Copyright.
In the past, some countries had included in their legislation requiring the copyright holder to comply with certain formalities to obtain copyright protection. One of these formalities was to include an indication that was requested by the author, such as — using the © symbol. Currently, very few countries still impose copyright formalities, so the use of such logos is no longer a legal requirement. However, many copyright owners even include the © symbol as a distinct way of indicating that this work is copyrighted and that all rights are reserved. The primary issue of preventing people from copying unlawful books remains the critical principle consisting of copyright protection. A remarkable phenomenon in copyright law is what exactly should be protected based on our idea, unlike the concept of what law protects. 4 With the international nature of communication and the ever-changing technological landscape, copyright law may not always be constant and immutable. Incorporate law directives
The author has encountered more difficulties than in other areas. Usually, copyright is applied by the state legislation, especially between the states of the common law and civil law. PI in concept relates closely to the creations of the human mind; these rights are directly protecting the creators’ interests and benefits, thereby giving them the right to own their production or work. One of the few reasons for protecting IP rights is to promote creativity by becoming a factor in contributing to the country’s social and economic development.